Glucose tells how well your body is utilizing sugar.
High values can be from eating before the testing or the possibility
of diabetes. If your value is over 200 even if you had eaten prior
to testing, consult your doctor.
Uric Acid is normally excreted in urine. It measures excessive breakdown, production and or destruction of cells. High values are associated with gout, arthritis, kidney problems, and use of some water pills (Diuretics).
BUN (Urea Nitrogen) is a waste product of the liver that is excreted by the kidneys. It measures how well kidneys excrete waste from the body. High values may indicate that the kidneys are not working as well as they should. BUN is also affected by high protein diets or strenuous exercise which raise the level, and by pregnancy which lowers it.
Creatinine, Serum is another waste product that indicates how well your kidneys are working, but the amount present is not affected by the protein that you eat. High values require medical evaluation, especially with high BUN levels. Low values are probably not significant.
BUN / Creatinine Ratio is the relationship between the two individual tests. If both individual results are WITHIN range then an elevated ratio is probably NOT significant.
Sodium and Chloride the major salts in your body, are regulated by the kidneys and adrenal gland. They are important in the functioning of nerves, muscles and most other cells. High values can be a sign of dehydration.
Potassium is controlled very carefully by the kidneys. It is important for the proper functioning of nerves and muscles, particularly the heart. Any value outside the normal range, high or low requires medical evaluation. It’s especially important if you are taking a diuretic (water pill) or heart medication (Digitalis, Lanoxin, etc.).
Calcium and Phosphorus are controlled by the parathyroid glands and kidneys. These minerals are found mostly in bone, and are important for proper blood clotting, nerve and muscle cell activity. High calcium and/or low phosphorus should be evaluated by your doctor.
Total Protein is an evaluation of the amount of proteins found in muscle, plasma and hemoglobin. High values may be caused by dehydration and low values may show signs of malnutrition or liver malfunction.
Albumin and Globulin are the two main proteins in blood and the general index of overall health and nutrition. Albumin is a protein formed in the liver and Globulin is the “antibody” protein, important for fighting disease.
Albumin/Globulin is the ratio of the individual tests. Usually not significant if individual tests are within range.
Total Bilirubin is a measure of liver health and a test for hemolytic anemia. Low levels are generally not significant and can be caused by a high fat meal prior to testing. High Bilirubin values can indicate liver disease, blood disorders or other conditions that reduce the flow of bile or produce an increase in bile itself.
Alkaline Phosphatase is an enzyme found primarily in the bones and liver. Expected values are higher for those who are growing (children, pregnant women) or when damage to bone or liver has occurred. Low values are usually not significant.
Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme present in all cells of the body. Anything that damages cells: heart attack, hepatitis, cirrhosis, jaundice and anemia will raise the amounts in the blood. It is not specific to any particular disease; however abnormalities should be discussed with your doctor.
AST (SGOT) if elevated, may indicate possible liver or muscle problems. Vigorous exercise can explain slightly high values. If your values are high your doctor should be consulted.
ALT (SGPT) is another test of liver function. Again, if your values are high your doctor should be consulted.
GGT (Gamma Glutamyltransferase) is a very sensitive test of liver function. Gamma GT is found in the liver, prostate, spleen and kidneys. Elevations are frequently seen with moderate alcohol intake and as a result of taking such drugs as Phenobarbital or Dilantin.
Iron, Serum evaluates the amount of iron in the bloodstream. Iron levels can fluctuate depending on time of day and iron intake. One of iron’s primary function is to be incorporated into hemoglobin in the blood stream and help transport oxygen. For women, Iron levels do fluctuate based on their menstrual cycle. The blood lost while menstruating can lower blood iron levels. Consistently high values can be a sign Hemochromatosis or Iron Overload. This typically genetic disorder is believed to be a factor in an increased risk of heart attacks. A Serum Ferritin level is usually a better indicator of Iron Overload because it looks for the iron storage not just levels in the blood.
Cholesterol is a blood fat shown to be associated with an increased probability of heart disease in some people. If elevated, should be discussed with your doctor. (< 200 is desirable, 200-239 is borderline, 240 > is high). Though Cholesterol plays a major role in your risk for Heart Disease, it is only a risk factor. Nearly 1/3 of all Americans that die each year from heart disease have normal cholesterol levels. Cholesterol levels are affected both by diet and family genetics.
Triglycerides is another of the blood fats that is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. This test, if out of range should be discussed with your doctor. Triglycerides may be elevated in the 200-600 range due to eating within 12 hours of being tested. If you were not fasting and your result is in this range, a repeated fasting evaluation should be obtained. (< 200 is normal, 200-400 is borderline high, > 1000 is very high).
HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) the “GOOD” Cholesterol is the type of cholesterol thought to be responsible for a REDUCTION in the risk of heart disease. Values greater than 35 mg/dl are considered desirable.
VLDL (Very Low Density Lipoprotein) this lipoprotein’s function is to transport Triglycerides in the blood stream and is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. (< 40 is desirable, > 40 increases CAD risk)
LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) the “BAD” Cholesterol is the fraction of cholesterol associated with an INCREASE in the risk of heart disease. (< 130 is desirable, 130-159 is borderline high, > 160 is high).
T. Chol/HDL Ratio (Coronary Risk Factor) is the calculation of GOOD and BAD Cholesterol to estimate the overall risk of heart disease. This calculation allows a person to still have an average risk factor, even with an elevated LDL (BAD) Cholesterol, if your HDL (GOOD) Cholesterol is high enough to offset it. Moderate exercise, like walking, is considered one of the best ways to increase the level of HDL and lower the risk factor.